Lunar Dome, USA
The year 2019 marked the 50th anniversary of the first moon landing. For this occasion, a road show was planned in several cities throughout the United States of America. For this road show, a large temporary theater tent housing 1,600 seats was designed.
Matthew Churchill Production Ltd. and Nick Grace Management Ltd.
|Architectural Design||Teresa Hoskyns and Matthew Churchill|
|Membrane Structural Engineering and Workshop Drawings||
formTL ingenieure für tragwerk und leichtbau GmbHRadolfzell, Germany
|Membrane Contractor||Canobbio Textile Engineering|
Main Structure Model Parameters
Dlubal customer formTL provided the structural engineering for this project. The finite element software RFEM was utilized for the analysis and design.
The tent was created as a temporary structure, optimized for quick assembly and easy transport A main membrane, supported by four truss arches, an elastically supported projection dome and a large ETFE façade, form the interior open space for this structure. The flexible foundation includes adaptable footing elements, anchored with long dowels. Pasadena, California was the first stop for the traveling theater for the "Apollo 11 - the Immersive Live Show" in the summer of 2019.
The Apollo Theater’s main structure is formed by 4 arch trusses. Hanging from these elements is an approximate 52,743 ft² membrane made of PVC-coated polyester fabric type III. The two slightly inclined center trusses carry the primary load of the 240-foot-long tent structure. These main trusses have a span of 183 ft and a height of 89 ft. The 36-foot-high smaller lateral trusses in the foyer and backstage area are set at a higher inclination.
The interior includes a projection dome above a surrounding timber wall. This dome has a diameter of 151 ft and a height of 49 ft. It is suspended from the two main arches with elastic cables. This suspension stiffness is extremely low to allow the prestressing force to change only slightly if the outer shell is deformed (e.g. due to strong wind). The projection dome membrane consists of lightweight PVC-coated polyester fabric with micro-perforations, which absorbs about 65% of the sound.
Located under the foyer arch are 32-foot-long facade supports with an ETFE cushion covering. The columns resist pressure loads only from the foyer arch. In the case of uplift loads, elongated holes provide decoupling.
The foundation for the arches includes large steel plates with 2.36 x 78.74 in piles. The plates can be used to compensate for height differences up to 19.69 in. The piles were designed according to EN 13782 and verified in a pullout test.
Within one short year, the planning, production, and assembly of an unmatched temporary tent structure were completed.
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In RF-/FOUNDATION Pro, the foundation design requires the definition the corresponding loading (load cases, load combinations, or result combinations) for the different design situations (STR, GEO, UPL or EQU).
RF-/PLATE-BUCKLING Add-on Module for RFEM/RSTAB | Plate Buckling Analysis for Plates with or Without Stiffeners According to 1993-1-5
RFEM/RSTAB Add-on Module RF-IMP/RSIMP | Generation of Geometric Replacement Imperfections and Pre-deformed Replacement Structures
Extension of the RF-/STEEL Warping Erosion module | Lateral -torsional buckling analyzes of members according to the second -order theory with 7 degrees of freedom
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/JOINTS Steel-Tower | Hinged connections of lattice tower members according to EC 3
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/JOINTS Steel-Column Base | Hinged and restrained column bases according to EC 3
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/STEEL BS | Design of steel members according to BS 5950 or BS EN 1993-1-1
RFEM add-on module RF-LOAD-HISTORY | Consideration of plastic deformations from previous load conditions
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/FE-LTB | Lateral -torsional buckling analysis according to theory II. Order (FEM)
SHAPE-THIN determines the effective cross-sections according to EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1993-1-5 for cold-formed sections. You can optionally check the geometric conditions for the applicability of the standard specified in EN 1993‑1‑3, Section 5.2.
The effects of local plate buckling are considered according to the method of reduced widths and the possible buckling of stiffeners (instability) is considered for stiffened sections according to EN 1993-1-3, Section 5.5.
As an option, you can perform an iterative calculation to optimize the effective cross-section.
You can display the effective cross-sections graphically.
Read more about designing cold-formed sections with SHAPE-THIN and RF-/STEEL Cold-Formed Sections in this technical article: Design of a Thin-Walled, Cold-Formed C-Section According to EN 1993-1-3.
- SHAPE‑THIN calculates a very small shear area. Why?
- When calculating a connection with the FRAME JOINT Pro add -on module, a message appears saying that the value is outside the allowable range (prev. Value: 108, min. Value 100, max. Value 100). What does this message mean?
- I have a trapezoidal roof structure that is supported by beams. However, the moments on the beams are smaller than they should be. What could be the reason for this?
- Why are some load cases displayed in red in RF-STEEL EC3?
- Why are the equivalent member designs grayed out in the Stability tab when activating the plastic designs by using the partial internal force method (RF‑/STEEL Plasticity)?
- At which position are the determined support forces for the crane runway girder? At the bottom flange of the crane runway girder or in the shear center of the cross -section?
- How do I create a frame joint with taper in JOINTS Steel - Rigid?
My member is oriented at the inclination of principal axis when I import from SHAPE-THIN to a 2D RFEM model. How do I fix this?
- For cross-section design of a flat steel, I obtain abnormally high shear stresses due to the torsion in the STEEL EC3 add-on module, which can be disproved by a simple manual calculation. What is the error?
- It seems that the members stay not deformed after my RF-FORM-FINDING calculation. What did I wrong?