Dragon Flight, X-Train Flying Launch Coaster in Ningbo, China
In many industrial sectors, China is the future market. This is also the case for the entertainment field in which the German company Maurer Söhne is working.The roller coaster Dragon Flight is being built for Romon U‑Park, an urban theme park in Ningbo. It is the first X‑Train Flying Launch Coaster designed by Maurer Söhne.
Structural Design and Fabrication
Maurer Söhne GmbH & Co.KG, Munich, Germany
The roller coaster has a length of 504 m. Its seven roller coaster elements include three inversions. The X‑train has a capacity of 20 passengers. With top speeds of 90 km/h, the train reaches up to 4.5 g (g‑force) several times.
The base area is 113 m × 51 m. At the highest point of the coaster ride, which is called the top hat, a vertex height of approximately 30 m is reached. The overall structure consists of a tubular structure with 6,201 members and 86 cross‑sections.
The rail structure was calculated in RSTAB. Both model and wheel loads were directly imported from the dynamic simulation by using RS‑COM.
The analysis was performed according to Chinese and European standards. The analysis included ultimate limit state design and fatigue design.
The German engineers accessed the RSTAB results by using RS‑COM again for the fatigue designs. Then, the design according to EN 1993‑1‑9 and GB 50017 was carried out with post-processing programs.
RS-COM was used again to return the results of the post-processing programs to RSTAB in order to represent the results graphically on the rendering of the entire model.
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Realized with Dlubal structural analysis software RFEM-Dragon Flight, X-Train Flying Launch Coaster in Ningbo (China)
Display of the load factor for the fatigue analysis according to GB 50017 (1 kN = 1 %) on the 3D model in RSTAB (© Maurer Söhne)
RF-/PLATE-BUCKLING Add-on Module for RFEM/RSTAB | Plate Buckling Analysis for Plates with or Without Stiffeners According to 1993-1-5
RFEM/RSTAB Add-on Module RF-IMP/RSIMP | Generation of Geometric Replacement Imperfections and Pre-deformed Replacement Structures
Extension of the RF-/STEEL Warping Erosion module | Lateral -torsional buckling analyzes of members according to the second -order theory with 7 degrees of freedom
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/TOWER effective lengths | Determination of effective lengths of lattice towers
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/JOINTS Steel-Column Base | Hinged and restrained column bases according to EC 3
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/STEEL BS | Design of steel members according to BS 5950 or BS EN 1993-1-1
RFEM add-on module RF-LOAD-HISTORY | Consideration of plastic deformations from previous load conditions
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/FE-LTB | Lateral -torsional buckling analysis according to theory II. Order (FEM)
RF-/HOHLPROF add-on module for RFEM/RSTAB | Ultimate limit state designs of welded hollow section connections according to EC 3
SHAPE-THIN determines the effective cross-sections according to EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1993-1-5 for cold-formed sections. You can optionally check the geometric conditions for the applicability of the standard specified in EN 1993‑1‑3, Section 5.2.
The effects of local plate buckling are considered according to the method of reduced widths and the possible buckling of stiffeners (instability) is considered for stiffened sections according to EN 1993-1-3, Section 5.5.
As an option, you can perform an iterative calculation to optimize the effective cross-section.
You can display the effective cross-sections graphically.
Read more about designing cold-formed sections with SHAPE-THIN and RF-/STEEL Cold-Formed Sections in this technical article: Design of a Thin-Walled, Cold-Formed C-Section According to EN 1993-1-3.
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Programs Used for Structural Analysis
The structural engineering software for design of frame, beam and truss structures, performing linear and nonlinear calculations of internal forces, deformations, and support reactions
Stress analysis of steel members
Programmable interface (API) based on the COM technology