Downstand Beams, Ribs, T-Beams: Modeling and Determination of Internal Forces

Technical Article on the Topic Structural Analysis Using Dlubal Software

  • Knowledge Base

Technical Article

Downstand beams or T-beams are often used in reinforced concrete structures. In contrast to the previous representation and calculation options where, for example, a downstand beam was considered as a fixed support and the determined support reaction was applied to a separate member structure using a T-beam section, ultimate structural FEA software like RFEM allows you to consider the structure as a whole and thus achieve a more precise analysis.

Advantages of Representation Using Rib Member Type in RFEM

The rigidity or flexibility of a downstand beam is considered. Thus, its influence on the distribution of internal forces and the deformation can be represented.

Rib Parameters

Image 01 - Parameters for Rib 3D

There are two essential parameters for a rib in a 3D position. First, there is the integration width that defines the area for the integration of internal forces. For this, the integration area on each side must not exceed several surfaces. Second, the rib alignment has to be defined. The position data refer to the local axis system of the surface, including the rib.

Rib Cross-Section

As a cross-section of the rib, it is necessary to define a cross-section part that is additionally available on the surface. For the design of a T-beam, the program generates a gross cross-section of the T-beam.

Determination of Internal Forces for Design

Before the design, the internal forces and the relation to the centroid of the T-beam (usually T-section or L-section) are determined. For this, the internal force component of the plate and the rib component are integrated. The internal forces are integrated as perpendicular to the rib axis.

Image 02 - Display of Internal Forces for Rib Only

For the plate component, the following internal forces result from the integration of the internal forces in surfaces. It is assumed that the local axis systems of the rib and the surface are the same. If these should not be the same, the internal forces must be previously transformed to the local axis system of the rib.

Image 03 - Eccentricity of Cross-Section Parts

The internal forces of the rib component correspond to the internal forces of the member, including the rib cross-section. In RFEM, it is possible to display the internal forces without the included surface components to evaluate internal forces. You can adjust this in Project Navigator - Display under "Results" - "Ribs - Effective Contribution on Surface/Member".

Image 04 - Display of Internal Forces for T-Beam 1

The resulting internal forces of the T-beam are obtained where the internal forces of the plate and rib component refer to the centroid of the T-beam section.

Image 05 - Cross-Section Parts for Rib 3D

The bending moment of the resulting T-beam can be obtained for a T-section, for example, as follows:
My = My,plate + My,rib - eplate ∙ Nplate + erib ∙ Nrib
The program always determines the resulting internal forces of T-beam sections in accordance with the default setting.

Image 06 - Internal Force Components for Plate

Rib in 2D

Basically, it is not a purely two-dimensional problem in the case of T-beams. Users need to be aware that the consideration of ribs in 2D necessarily comes with a simplification. Since the alignment of eccentric elements is not possible in 2D, the centroidal axis of the T-beam section runs in the surface plane. This approach requires additional steps when considering the stiffness of the structure.

Image 07 - Rib 2D

In addition to the parameters of the rib in 3D, further parameters of the rib in 2D have to be applied in order to consider the stiffness of the T-beam section. By internally considering the rib in 2D, the superimposing stiffness results in the integration width area b1 and b2. Therefore, the reduction of the surface stiffness in the integration width area is active due to the default setting of the rib parameters. However, you should note that this application leads to the stiffness concentration along the rib axis, which thus does not occur in reality nor in the display of the rib in 3D.

Image 08 - Additional Parameters for Rib 2D

Since the eccentricity in 2D cannot be displayed, the influence of the eccentricity on the stiffness (i.e., the additional Steiner components) is considered. For torsional stiffness, part of the T-beam section and the surface are superimposed. The torsional stiffness activity of the T-beam section can be reduced manually. Generally, it is impossible to specify a reduction factor or a percentage value for the effective torsional stiffness, because this depends on the cross-section geometry.

Therefore, it is better to use the 3D version of RFEM instead of the 2D version to represent the downstand beams.

Literature

[1]  Barth, C.; Rustler, W.: Finite Elemente in der Baustatik-Praxis, 2nd ed. Berlin: Beuth, 2013

Author

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Adrian Langhammer

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Adrian Langhammer

Product Engineering & Customer Support

Mr. Langhammer is responsible for the development of the add-on modules for reinforced concrete, and provides technical support for our customers.

Keywords

Downstand beam Rib T-beam Modeling Determination of internal forces

Links

Write Comment...

Write Comment...

  • Views 5577x
  • Updated 07/14/2021

Contact us

Contact Dlubal

Do you have questions or need advice?
Contact our free e-mail, chat, or forum support or find various suggested solutions and useful tips on our FAQ page.

(267) 702-2815

info-us@dlubal.com

Online training | English

RFEM | Structural dynamics and earthquake design according to EC 8

Online Training 08/11/2021 8:30 AM - 12:30 PM CEST

Online Training | English

RFEM for Students | USA

Online Training 08/11/2021 1:00 PM - 4:00 PM EDT

Online training | English

Eurocode 3 | Steel structures according to DIN EN 1993-1-1

Online Training 08/25/2021 8:30 AM - 12:30 PM CEST

Online Training | English

Eurocode 5 | Timber structures according to DIN EN 1995-1-1

Online Training 09/23/2021 8:30 AM - 12:30 PM CEST

Glass Design with Dlubal Software

Glass Design with Dlubal Software

Webinar 06/08/2021 2:00 PM - 2:45 PM CEST

Blast Time History Analysis in RFEM

Blast Time History Analysis in RFEM

Webinar 05/13/2021 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM EDT

Timber structures | Part 2: Design

Timber Beam and Surface Structures | Part 2: Design

Webinar 05/11/2021 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM CEST

Plate and Shell Buckling Utilizing Dlubal Software

Plate and Shell Buckling Utilizing Dlubal Software

Webinar 03/30/2021 2:00 PM - 2:45 PM CEST

CSA S16:19 Steel Design in RFEM

CSA S16:19 Steel Design in RFEM

Webinar 03/10/2021 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM EDT

The Most Common User Errors With RFEM and RSTAB

The Most Common User Errors With RFEM and RSTAB

Webinar 02/04/2021 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM BST

ADM 2020 Member Design in RFEM

ADM 2020 Member Design in RFEM

Webinar 01/19/2021 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM EDT

Dlubal Info Day

Dlubal Info Day Online | December 15, 2020

Webinar 12/15/2020 9:00 AM - 4:00 PM BST

FEA Troubleshooting and Optimization in RFEM

FEA Troubleshooting and Optimization in RFEM

Webinar 11/11/2020 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM EDT

Soil-Structure Interaction in RFEM

Soil-Structure Interaction in RFEM

Webinar 10/27/2020 2:00 PM - 2:45 PM BST

NBC 2015 Modal Response Spectrum Analysis in RFEM

NBC 2015 Modal Response Spectrum Analysis in RFEM

Webinar 09/30/2020 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM EDT

Documenting Results in the RFEM Printout Report

Webinar 08/25/2020 2:00 PM - 2:45 PM CEST

ACI 318-19 Concrete Design in RFEM

ACI 318-19 Concrete Design in RFEM

Webinar 08/20/2020 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM EDT

How to Be More Productive Using RFEM

How to Be More Productive Using RFEM

Webinar 07/07/2020 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM CEST

}
RFEM
RFEM

Main Program

Structural engineering software for finite element analysis (FEA) of planar and spatial structural systems consisting of plates, walls, shells, members (beams), solids and contact elements

Price of First License
3,540.00 USD